This is a collection of PDFs which offer management suggestions for landowners wishing to learn more about native warm season grasses, forbs, and shrubs. Information on grassland restoration and invasive species management is available.
"Native warm-season grasses (nwsg) are grasses historically native to an area that grow during the warm months of the year and are dormant during autumn and winter. They differ from cool-season grasses, which make their active growth during spring and fall. There are many warm-season grasses native to the Mid-South region; however, seven species are most commonly promoted as cover for wildlife and/or forage for livestock."
Source Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries
"Much of the existing “grassland” one commonly sees in Virginia’s rural landscape is either cut for hay or grazed by livestock. These open fields are planted with a final product in mind—grass or forage—and the plants most frequently used include orchard grass or fescue. Missing from these artificial grassland monocultures are layers of different vegetation and the freedom of movement between plants that ground-foraging birds and mammals need to find food and to escape predation."
"The vast majority of grasslands throughout the Northeast are dominated by introduced cool-season species, which provide valuable habitat to grassland specialists such as savannah sparrows, bobolinks, and eastern meadowlarks. It is essential that we conserve, maintain, enhance, restore, and establish both cool- and warm-season grasslands throughout the region."
Source New Hampshire Fish and Game Department
"For each invasive species listed, several natives are suggested as alternatives, along with their natural range in continental North America. Ideally the alternative matches most or all of the invasive plant's desirable characteristics, such as flowers, fruit, fall color, and ease of care."
A list of native herbs, their uses, native regions, minimum light requirements, and minimum moisture requirements.
Source Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation
A list of native grassland plants, their uses, native regions, minimum light requirements, and minimum moisture requirements.
Inside this document you will find information on which plants are native to Virginia grasslands, their benefits, details on buying and growing natives, and the difference between non-natives and invasives.
Inside this document you will find information on which plants are native to Virginia's Piedmont region, their benefits, details on buying and growing natives, and the difference between non-natives and invasives.
Inside this document you will find information on which plants are native to Virginia's Chesapeake Bay Watershed region, their benefits, details on buying and growing natives, and the difference between non-natives and invasives.
Source National Park Service
"Do you have a field you have to mow every year to keep it from “growing up”? How would you like to improve available nutrition for deer in that field without planting anything? At the same time, how would you like to enhance fawning and winter cover in that field? What about maintaining it without mowing? Read on and we’ll tell you how to manage an “old-field” – what biologists refer to as early succession habitat – to produce benefits for deer through all seasons."
"Native warm-season grasses are the primary components of many of the conservation plant mixes used in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Native warm-season grasses are very versatile and are used for a wide array of purposes including wildlife habitat, forage and pasture, soil stabilization, low maintenance landscaping, carbon sequestration, biofuels, air and water quality, and many more."
Source USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
"Virginia is located in the transition area between the cool temperate and subtropical zones of the United States. Thus, Virginia can produce a wide range of pasture plants, but varying temperatures and soil conditions require that different pasture species be grown in various parts of the state. Horses can be susceptible to health problems when allowed to overgraze lush pastures, particularly when high volumes of clover are available. The consumption of excessive soluble and rapidly fermentable carbohydrates may lead to colic and laminitis."
Source Virginia Cooperative Extension